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Ethereum scalaing

ethereum scalaing

There are various layers that are available on Ethereum. Let's take a look at how these solutions can bring scalability to the blockchain. Scaling Ethereum & crypto for a billion users. A guide to the multi-chain future, sidechains, and layer-2 solutions. By Justin Mart, Connor Dempsey. Polygon is a decentralised Ethereum scaling platform that enables developers to build scalable user-friendly dApps with low transaction fees without ever. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DISTANCE AND DISPLACEMENT CALCULUS FORMULAS

Layer 2 scaling This category of off-chain solutions derives its security from Mainnet Ethereum. Layer 2 is a collective term for solutions designed to help scale your application by handling transactions off the Ethereum Mainnet layer 1 while taking advantage of the robust decentralized security model of Mainnet. Transaction speed suffers when the network is busy, making the user experience poor for certain types of dapps. And as the network gets busier, gas prices increase as transaction senders aim to outbid each other.

This can make using Ethereum very expensive. Most layer 2 solutions are centered around a server or cluster of servers, each of which may be referred to as a node, validator, operator, sequencer, block producer, or similar term. Depending on the implementation, these layer 2 nodes may be run by the individuals, businesses or entities that use them, or by a 3rd party operator, or by a large group of individuals similar to Mainnet.

Generally speaking, transactions are submitted to these layer 2 nodes instead of being submitted directly to layer 1 Mainnet. For some solutions the layer 2 instance then batches them into groups before anchoring them to layer 1, after which they are secured by layer 1 and cannot be altered.

The details of how this is done vary significantly between different layer 2 technologies and implementations. A specific layer 2 instance may be open and shared by many applications, or may be deployed by one project and dedicated to supporting only their application. Why is layer 2 needed? Increased transactions per second greatly improves user experience, and reduces network congestion on Mainnet Ethereum. Transactions are rolled up into a single transaction to Mainnet Ethereum, reducing gas fees for users making Ethereum more inclusive and accessible for people everywhere.

Any updates to scalability should not be at the expense of decentralization or security — layer 2 builds on top of Ethereum. There are application specific layer 2 networks that bring their own set of efficiencies when working with assets at scale.

More on layer 2. Rollups Rollups perform transaction execution outside layer 1 and then the data is posted to layer 1 where consensus is reached. As transaction data is included in layer 1 blocks, this allows rollups to be secured by native Ethereum security. There are two types of rollups with different security models: Optimistic rollups: assumes transactions are valid by default and only runs computation, via a fraud proof , in the event of a challenge.

More on Optimistic rollups. Zero-knowledge rollups: runs computation off-chain and submits a validity proof to the chain. More on zero-knowledge rollups. State channels State channels utilize multisig contracts to enable participants to transact quickly and freely off-chain, then settle finality with Mainnet. This minimizes network congestion, fees, and delays. The two types of channels are currently state channels and payment channels.

Learn more about state channels. Sidechains A sidechain is an independent EVM-compatible blockchain which runs in parallel to Mainnet. These are compatible with Ethereum via two-way bridges, and run under their own chosen rules of consensus, and block parameters. Learn more about Sidechains.

Plasma A plasma chain is a separate blockchain that is anchored to the main Ethereum chain, and uses fraud proofs like optimistic rollups to arbitrate disputes. Why rollups? Sharding was proposed over five years ago as a way to help the network scale by splitting activity across several different chains. As a result, the would-be major update to Ethereum has proven difficult to implement.

While sharding has been stuck in development hell, a handful of third parties have seized the Eth-scaling mantle. Some of these solutions are basically just glorified sidechains — independent blockchains that can send and receive Ethereum network transactions. A series of transactions that costs thousands of dollars on Ethereum can be done for pennies on Polygon, Ronin or Gnosis.

Since the transactions are taking place on the sidechain, they help keep some network traffic off of Ethereum higher traffic on Ethereum means higher fees for everyone. Of course, this convenience often comes at a cost. While easy to spin up and use, sidechains tend to make compromises to centralization and security in the name of convenience. Compared to sidechains, layer 2 rollups are considered by many developers to be the more secure way for Ethereum to scale.

Rollups, like sidechains, take the stress off of Ethereum by executing transactions on a separate blockchain. Unlike sidechains, rollups borrow their security from the Ethereum mainnet — they use fancy cryptography and other methods like a multi-day dispute period to allow Ethereum mainnet nodes to confirm that transactions are legitimate.

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Ethereum LAYER 2 SCALING Explained (Rollups, Plasma, Channels, Sidechains)

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