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the of and to a in for is on s that by this with i you it not or be are im configuration cock merchant expert comprehensive universal cds protect ar. This blog explains why you should do this, and answers some common questions nissan qwer asdfg midnight1 williams please spencer aaaaa1 gateway. Michelle Cottrell-Williams, Teacher, Wakefield High, Virginia State tor or content expert, an instructional design or learning science practitioner. EXPLAIN CRYPTO CURRENCY LIKE IM AN IDIOT
Biasanya mereka meminta dana seikhlasnya ketika diajak berfoto. Namun, sayang sekali anda tidak diperkenankan untuk memasuki kraton dari pintu utama, melainkan dari samping melewati museum keraton. Untuk menuju ke museum, anda tinggal berjalan kurang lebih meter menuju timur dari pintu keraton. Dimana untuk masuk kedalam museum, anda diharuskan membayar Rp Di Museum keraton anda akan disuguhkan berbagai artefak kuno peninggalan dari raja-raja terdahulu seperti benda-benda tradisional yang digunakan untuk bercocok tanampada zaman dulu, bagian dek kapal yang berbentuk kepala naga, gamelan, kereta kencana dari susuhan Pakubuwono awal hingga sekarang, lukisan, berbagai replika pusaka kerajaan dimana beberapa diantaranya adalah hadiah dari raja-raja dari Eropa dan masih banyak lagi yang bisa anda lihat disini.
Di bagian ujung musuem terdapat pintu besar menuju dalam keraton, dimana untuk memasukinya anda diharuskan untuk melepas alas kaki anda. Disana anda hanya diperbolehkan berjalan-jalan di area yang sudah ditentukan. Dan Buka setiap hari Senin hingga kamis, mulai pukul Disini anda bisa bersantai menikmati sejuknya suasana solo, sambil menilik berbagai satwa yang seperti harimau, zebra, gajah, komodo, kera, berbagai burung dan masih banyak lagi.
Selain itu, disini juga terdapat berbagai pepohonan langka yang membuat kebun binatang Taru Jurug menjadi rindang dan sangat cocok untuk bersantai. Selain itu, Kebun binatang ini juga terkadang mengadakan beberapa pertunjukkan seperti pertunjukkan musik hingga kesenian reog. Kabun binatang ini juga dilengkapi dengan dancing fountain, atau air mancur menari yang memadukan, gerakan air mancur dan pertunjukkan lampu yang memukau.
Kebun binatang taru Jurug terletak di Jalan Ir. Sutami No. Kebun binatang ini buka setiap hari mulai jam Sondokoro merupakan kompleks pabrik gula yang masih aktif hingga saat ini. Sondokoro merupakan sebuah taman yang asri dan sejuk yang dipenuhi pepohonan rindang. Disini anda bisa melihat bekas mesin mesin pembuat gula yang sudah tidak digunakan. Salah satu atraksi utama di taman ini adalah kereta api uap langka peninggalan zaman belanda yang bisa anda naiki untuk menikmati suasana di sekitar Agrowisata dan pabrik gula.
Selain itu, taman ini juga dilengkapi dengan berbagai fasilitas seperti kolam renang, pijat refleks, kebun binatang mini, spot terapi ikan, flying fox, dan terkadang juga terdapat pertunjukkan live musik disini. Agrowisata Sondokoro terletak di Jalan Mangkunegara, Bojonegoro, Ngijo, Tasikmadu, Karanganyar, Surakarta, untuk masuk kedalam taman ini, anda hanya dikenakan biaya sebesar Rp 4.
Taman ini buka setiap hari mulai jam Kunjungi kampung batik laweyan dan kauman Solo. Solo memang terkenal dengan motif-motif batiknya yang khas. Dimana kampung batik kauman merupakan sentra batik yang memproduksi batik-batik yang digunakan untuk keluarga keraton. Di sepanjang gang yang kecil dan berkelok kelok, anda akan melihat berbagai batik yang dipajang di berbagai butik-butik batik. Radjiman No. Jika batik kauman didominasi dengan warna-warna gelap, berbeda dengan batik Laweyan yang memiliki warna yang cenderung terang.
Kompleks batik Laweyan terletak di Jalan Dr. Radjiman No , Laweyan Surakarta. Produk-produk batik Solo memiliki kualitas yang terbilang baik dan banyak diantaranya yang diekspor keluar negeri. Pura Mangkunegaran merupakan contoh arsitektur rumah joglo kuno yang digabungkan dengan sentuhan arsitektur Eropa yang elegan.
Didepan bangunan utama terdapat sebuah taman dengan rumput hijau dan air mancur bergaya eropa di tengahnya. Sedangkan didalam keraton anda bisa melihat berbagai koleksi benda-benda bersejarah disini. Pura Mangkunegaran terletak di Jalan Ronggowarsito no. Wisata Monumen Pers Nasional Solo Monumen Pers Solo Monumen pers nasional ini dibangun pada tahun dimana digunakan sebagai tempat pertemuan wartawan dari seluruh indonesia yang tergabung dalam Persatuan Wartawan indonesia atau disingkat PWI.
Monumen ini dahulu bernama Societeit Sasana Soeka dan berubah fungsi menjadi museum pada tahun Di lantai satu monumen ini anda akan disuguhkan berbagai koleksi pers zaman dahulu, seperti majalah dan kotan pada zaman kuno, kamera kuno, alat pemutar audio kuno, piringan hitam, mesin ketik kuno, kenthongan, dan berbagai benda lain yang berhubungan dengan dunia pers pada umumnya. Selain itu, juga terdapat mekanisme penyampaian media pada masa belanda dan patung tokoh-tokoh pers nasional.
Di lantai atas terdapat perpustakaan yang menampung berbagai koleksi buku lengkap yang dilengkapi dengan ruang baca yang nyaman serta wifi gratis yang bisa anda gunakan setiap saat. Museum ini juga digunakan untuk seminar-seminar pers, komunikasi dan media.
Monumen pers ini terletak di Jl. Gajah Mada No. Museum ini berdiri pada tahun yang kemudian pada tahun musem ini dipindahkan ke tempat sekarang. Terdapat banyak koleksi benda-benda bersejarah yang bisa anda lihat disini, diantarnya yaitu sebuah buku karya Pakubuwono IV yang berisi berbagai hal yang berhubungan dengan pemerintahan yang berjudul buku Wulang Reh.
Dan salah satu koleksi paling populer disini adalah hadiah yang diberikan oleh Napoleon Bonaparte kepada Susuhan Pakubuwono V berupa sebuah porselen antik yang indah. Selain itu disini juga terdapat, galangan kapal yang pernah digunakan oleh kerajaan Mataram, berbagai koleksi keris, wayang, gamelan, keramik, dan berbagai arca era hindu dan Budha.
Selain itu, museum ini juga dilengkapi dengan perpustakaan kecil yang berisi mengenai sejarah dan hal-hal yang berkaitan erat dengan ilmu kejawen. Dimana museum ini buka setiap hari selasa hingga minggu mulai dari jam Untuk masuk kedalam museum anda dikenakan biaya masuk sebesar Rp 5. Taman ini memiliki luas sekitar 9,8 hektar dimana didominasi oleh pepohonan rindang yang berusia ratusan tahun dan sebuah kolam besar yang berada di tengah-tengah taman.
Merupakan tempat nongkrong yang asyik untuk anda yang ingin bersantai bersama teman-teman, pacar maupun keluarga anda. Di sini terdapat bangku taman yang unik, serta rerumputan hijau yang menyelimuti hampir seluruh taman. Selain itu disini juga terdapat beberapa ruang teater, seperti ruang teater tari dan gamelan. Terdapat juga rusa dan ayam hias yang dibiarkan bebas berkeliaran di taman ini.
Taman Balekambang terletak di Jl. Balekambang No. Taman ini buka setiap hari dari jam Di museum ini anda akan disuguhkan berbagai penemuan-penemuan pra sejarah, salah satu yang paling terkenal adalah gading mamoth yang berasal dari jutaan tahun yang lalu. Selain itu, anda juga akan disuguhkan berbagai diorama manusia purba pada zaman dahulu mulai dari kehidupanya, rumah, bagaimana cara mencari makan dan lain sebagainya.
Museum ini juga merupakan salah satu museum yang menjadi pusat penelitian manusia purba di Asia. Museum ini juga dilengkpai dengan ruang audio visual yang sangat menarik yang membantu anda untuk lebih memahami materi yang disampaikan di museum ini.
Diluar museum anda bisa membeli berbagai pernak pernik khas purba untuk oleh-oleh teman ataupun keluarga anda di rumah. Buka dari hari selasa hingga minggu mulai jam Museum Batik Danar Hadi Surakarta Museum Batik Danar Hadi Solo IG nicolausaji Museum Batik Danar Hadi memiliki berbagai koleksi batik dengan berbagai model dan corak mulai dari batik-batik dengan motif tradisional hingga batik-batik bermotif kontenporer yang berasal dari seluruh Indonesia.
Batik ini merupakan salah satu batik di Indonesia yang paling terkenal dan laris di pasaran lokal maupun macanegara. Selain bisa melihat berbagai motif batik, disini anda juga menyaksikan proses membatik secara langsung, dimana bisa menambah pengetahuan anda mengenai salah satu warisan budaya bangsa ini. Museum ini buka setiap hari mulai dari jam Di Ngarsopuro night market terdapat banyak pedagang mulai dari pakaian, boneka, serta berbagai macam kuliner khas Solo. Pasar malam ini memiliki penataan yang bagus dan rapi, dimana tatananya digadang-gadang menyerupai Orchid Road.
Tenda berwarna putih berderet di sepanjang jalan yang dihiasi dengan lampu-lampu yang terang. Dimana hanya buka setiap hari Sabtu mulai jam Galabo Solo Galobo Solo Solo memang terkenal dengan kulinernya yang khas dan lezat, dan tak lengkap rasanya jika jalan-jalan ke kota Solo tanpa menikmati makanan khasnya. Salah satu tempat populer untuk menikmati wisata kuliner di kota Solo adalah di Galabo yang merupakan singkatan dari Gladak Langen Bogan.
Disini anda bisa mencicipi berbagai kuliner khas Solo seperti timlo, Bakso, sate, ayam bakar, nasi goreng, berbagai seafood dan masih banyak lagi. Biasanya pada akhir pekan, diadakan live musik yang akan membuat wisata kuliner anda semakin menyenangkan. Terdapat lebih dari 27 wahana yang bisa anda nikmati di taman air ini, seperti Sight Tower, extreme Slides, areated spa, fantastic, wave pool, warm spa dan masih banyak lagi yang bisa anda coba.
Sebelum menuju jalan masuk ke area taman air ini, anda akan disambut dengan 5 patung yang berwarna emas yang berdiri di sudut sudut jalan. Patung-patung tersebut adalah tokoh-tokoh pandawa dalam pewayangan yaitu puntadewa,Werkudara, janaka, Nakula dan Sadewa.
Sedangkan didalam Pandawa Water World Solo terdapat patung besar yang menjadi landmark dari pandawa water World ini. Buka setiap hari dari jam Tiket masuk untuk bisa menikmati semua wahana disini adalah Rp Di pasar ini anda bisa membeli berbagai produk tekstil seperti batik dan berbagai pakaian import maupun lokal. Di pasar klewer terdapat lebih dari 2. Selain menjual berbagai produk fashion seperti kaos, kemeja, celana, jersey dan lain sebagainya.
Disini anda juga bisa mencicipi berbagai makanan khas Solo yang lezat, seperti gado-gado, bakso, timlo, soto dan lain sebagainya. Pasar Klewer terletak di Jl. Kliwon, Kota Surakarta, tidak jauh dari keraton kasunanan Surakarta. Biasanya kunjungan ke sekitar pasar klewer satu paket dengan kunjungan ke Galabo, benteng Vasternburg, dan Kraton Kasunanan surakarta.
Perjalanan menuju candi ini melewati kebun the yang indah dan luas, namun jalan yang dilalui cukup ekstrim. Enhancements to SOAP messaging providing quality of protection through message integrity, message confidentiality, and single message authentication. These mechanisms can be used to accommodate a wide variety of security models and encryption technologies. WS-Security also provides a general-purpose mechanism for associating security tokens with messages.
No specific type of security token is required by WS-Security. It is designed to be extensible e. For example, a client might provide proof of identity and proof that they have a particular business certification.
Additionally, WS-Security describes how to encode binary security tokens. Specifically, the specification describes how to encode X. It also includes extensibility mechanisms that can be used to further describe the characteristics of the credentials that are included with a message. Universal format for structured documents and data on the Web. Structured data includes things like spreadsheets, address books, configuration parameters, financial transactions, and technical drawings.
XML is a set of rules you may also think of them as guidelines or conventions for designing text formats that let you structure your data. XML is not a programming language, and one does not have to be a programmer to use it or learn it. XML makes it easy for a computer to generate data, read data, and ensure that the data structure is unambiguous.
XML avoids common pitfalls in language design: it is extensible, platform-independent, and it supports internationalization and localization. XML is fully Unicode-compliant. Service providing a standard means of communication among different software applications involved in presenting dynamic context-driven information to the user. More specific definitions include: 1. A software application identified by a URI whose interfaces and binding are capable of being defined, described and discovered by XML artifacts.
Supports direct interactions with other software applications using XML based messages via Internet-based protocols. An application delivered as a service that can be integrated with other Web Services using Internet standards. It is an URL-addressable resource that programmatically returns information to clients that want to use it. Programmable application logic accessible using standard Internet protocols.
Web Services combine aspects of component-based development and the Web. Like components, Web Services represent black-box functionality that can be reused without worrying about how the service is implemented. Query language that uses the structure of XML to intelligently express queries across all these kinds of data, whether physically stored in XML or viewed as XML via middleware. In support of this primary purpose, it also provides basic facilities for manipulation of strings, numbers and Booleans.
XPath operates on the abstract, logical structure of an XML document, rather than its surface syntax. In addition to its use for addressing, XPath is also designed so that it has a natural subset that can be used for matching testing whether or not a node matches a pattern ; this use of XPath is described in XSLT.
XPath models an XML document as a tree of nodes. There are different types of nodes, including element nodes, attribute nodes and text nodes. XPath defines a way to compute a string-value for each type of node. Some types of nodes also have names. Ocerview 1.
Invention Context There is a misconception that the Holy Grail for information access is the provision of natural language searching capability. Prior technologies for information access have focused principally on improving the interface for searching for or accessing information to optimize information retrieval. The presumption has largely been that providing a natural language interface to information will perfectly solve users' information access problems and end the frustration users have with finding information.
In truth, however, many axes of analysis are involved in how people acquire knowledge in the real world. One example is context. There are many things people know only because of where they were at a certain place and time. If they were not at that place at that time, they would not know what is in fact known or, indeed, might not care to know.
Having the ability to search for what is presently known with natural language does not assist in uncovering the knowledge related to that particular time and place. There are simply no natural parameters that form the correct query to retrieve the desired information. The conundrum is that a person cannot ask for what he or she might not even know would have value until after the fact.
Stated differently, one cannot query for what they do not know they do not know, or for what they do not know that they might want to know. Those people at those parties mentioned the CDs to the person, thereby increasing the person's knowledge of music. As another example, a person may purchase a book if read, increasing the person's knowledge on the particular topic of the book , based on a recommendation from a hitherto unknown stranger the person happened to sit beside on an airplane flight.
In the real world, people acquire knowledge based not just on what they read and search for, but also based on the friends they keep, the people with whom they interact and the people whose judgment they trust. The present invention mirrors virtually every real-world knowledge-acquisition scenario in the digital world. The inability of efforts such as natural-language search techniques of Today's Web as well as the Semantic Web to recognize the many ways in which knowledge is disseminated and acquired render them ultimately ineffective.
The present invention accounts for the variety of ways in which humans have always acquired knowledge—independent of the actual technology used for information delivery. By way of example, there has always been context and there has always been time. Likewise there has always been the notion of discovery and the need to link information dynamically and with user control. Nevertheless, prior to the present invention, there was no ability in the electronic medium to focus on the mode, protocol and presentation of knowledge delivery which maps to real-world scenarios for example, via Context Templates, context-sensitivity, time-sensitivity, dynamic linking, flexible presentation, Context Skins, context attributes, etc.
There will always be new information types. But the dissemination and acquisition axes of knowledge e. The present invention captures this reality. In addition, the present invention provides the ability to disseminate knowledge via serendipity.
Serendipity plays a large part in knowledge acquisition in the real world and it is a first-class mode of knowledge delivery. The present invention enables a user to acquire information serendipitously albeit intelligently by its support for context, time, Context Templates, etc.
Such information models are not user-focused, do not incorporate context, time, dynamism and templates, and do not map to real-world knowledge acquisition and dissemination scenarios. This is possible because, unlike existing mediums for information access, a preferred embodiment of the present invention focuses on the knowledge dissemination models that incorporate context, time, dynamism, and templates for the benefit of both the end-user and the content producer and not on the specifics of the access interface, or the linking semantic or non-semantic of information resources based on static data models or human-based authoring.
If it is not authored and distributed properly, no one knows of its existence, knows how it relates to other sources of intelligence, or knows how to act on it in real-time and in the proper fashion. This is largely because Today's Web was not designed to be a platform for knowledge. It was designed to be a platform for presentation and is intentionally dumb, static, and reactive. Today, knowledge-workers—those who seek to use information by adding context—and meaningare at the mercy of knowledge-authors.
A significant aspect of knowledge interaction is to have knowledge-workers be able to navigate their way through a knowledge space in a very intuitive manner, and at the speed at which they wish to make decisions and act on the knowledge. In creating a knowledge experience, it is also preferred to be able to integrate knowledge assets across content-provider, partner, supplier, customer and people boundaries. In the enterprise scenario, for example, no single organization has all the knowledge it needs to remain competitive.
Users should have always-on access to knowledge from a variety of sources, in-place, and in an intelligent context that is relevant to their current task. All this requires a layer of intelligence and pro-activity that is not available today. Today, for example, enterprises use information portals, such as intranets and the Internet, as a way of disseminating information to their employees.
However, this is far from being enough, as it provides only presentation-level integration. This is akin to subscribing to newsletters to keep updated with information, as opposed to having an Agent that manages your information for you, helps you discover new information on-the-fly, helps you capture and share information with colleagues, etc. To accomplish the desired level of knowledge interaction requires Agents working in the background, reasoning, learning, inferring, matching users together based on their profiles, capturing new knowledge and automatically deducing new knowledge, and federating knowledge from external sources so that they become a seamless part of the knowledge experience.
This in turn requires the semantic integration of knowledge assets so that they all make sense in a holistic fashion, rather than merely providing the basis for presentation-level integration and document searching. The present invention is designed to be an intelligent, proactive, real-time knowledge platform that co-exists with Today's Web or any other layer of presentation. Users consume only information as it is presented to them.
The present invention adds a layer of intelligence and layers of customization that Today's HTML-based Web environment cannot support. The present invention provides an XML-based dynamic Web of smart knowledge objects rather than dumb Web pages wherein the semantics of the objects are preserved between the server and the client, thereby giving users much more power and control over their knowledge experience. With reference to FIG. Information in both of these layers is handled distinctly.
No semantics are used at the Information Indexing Layer; rather, search engines based on keywords are used. The Logic Layer consists primarily of a database that allows programmability for searching, rules, view, triggers, etc. The Application Layer consists of server-side scripts that drive e-Business applications based on user input.
At the topmost or Presentation Layer, Today's Web has presentation information in the form of Web pages that is exposed via portals with a Web platform e. Apart from overlapping layers of processing, the present invention uniquely handles information from the bottommost level of operation in a manner that preserves the semantics of the underlying information sources. At both the Structured and Unstructured Information Sources Layers, the system 10 handles information uniformly, taking into account metadata and semantics associated with the information.
At the Information Indexing Layer, information metadata and semantics are extracted from unstructured. The system 10 adds three additional platform layers not present in Today's Web: Knowledge Indexing and Classification Layer, wherein information from both structured and unstructured sources are semantically encoded; Knowledge Representation Layer, wherein associations are created that allows maintenance of a self-correcting or healing Semantic Network of knowledge objects; and Knowledge Ontology and Inference Layer, wherein new connections and properties are inferred in the Semantic Network.
At the Logic Layer a knowledge-base is created that allows for programmability at a semantic level. At the Application Layer, server-side scripts are used in association with the knowledge-base. These scripts dynamically generate knowledge objects based on user input, and may include semantic commands for retrieval, notifications and logic. This Layer may also include Smart Agents to optimize the handling of semantic user input. The Presentation Layer of the system 10 preserves the semantics that are tracked from the bottommost layers.
Presentation at this Layer is dynamically generated on the client computer system and completely customizable. The present invention provides a programmable Web. Unlike Today's Web which is a dumb Web of documents, the Web of the present invention is programmable akin to a database—it is able to process logic and rules, and will be able to initiate events. While Today's Web is encoded for human, and thus is focused primarily on presentation of static information, the virtual Web of the present invention is encoded primarily for machines, albeit ultimately presented to humans as the end of the knowledge delivery chain.
The present invention provides an intelligent, learning Web. This means that the virtual Web of the present invention will be able to learn new connections and become smarter over time. The Web is dynamic, virtual and self-authoring, thereby providing much more power to knowledge-workers by intelligently and proactively making semantic connections that Today's Web is unable to provide, thereby leading to a reduction in and eventual elimination of information loss.
The Web of the present invention is a self-healing Web. Unlike Today's web which has to be manually maintained by document authors, the present invention provides a Web that is self-maintained by machines. This feature rectifies broken links because the Web will fix disconnections in the network automatically. Finally, as will be set forth in greater detail below, the various embodiments of the present invention incorporate some or all of the axes of knowledge acquisition described above to provide substantial advantages over existing systems directed to Today's Web or the conceptual Semantic Web.
System Architecture and Technology Considerations 1. System Overview The present invention is directed to a system and method for knowledge retrieval, management and delivery. Each of the preferred components of the system 10 of the present invention, as well as the interaction among the components, is described in greater detail below. In the preferred embodiment, this occurs via the Information Agent. In an alternative embodiment, the communication may occur programmatically via an Enterprise Knowledge Portal e.
These components are described in greater detail below. Technology Stacks The significant differences between Today's Web and the conceptual Semantic Web are further highlighted by reference to the technology stacks of each as shown with reference to FIG. System Hererogeneity Heterogeneity is an advantage of the present invention. Gather its email metadata from an SMTP store for email from any source or for the system inbox. This allows it to support any event repository that supports the iCalendar or CAL protocol standard.
In an alternative embodiment, the KIS Agency may be configured to extract metadata stored in a proprietary repository via an appropriate DSA. To achieve heterogeneity, in the preferred embodiment, for client-server communications, the system 10 uses XML Web Service standards that work in an interoperable manner across platforms.
Users are not required to take any extra steps while installing or using the client based on the platform on which any of the Agencies they are interacting with is running. The Information Agent preferably uses open standards for its Skins and other presentation effects. A sample, heterogeneous, end-to-end implementation of a preferred embodiment of the Information Nervous System of the present invention is shown with reference to FIG.
The components shown in FIG. Security The preferred embodiment of the Information Nervous System provides support for all aspects of security: authentication, authorization, auditing, data privacy, data integrity, availability, and non-repudiation. Security is preferably handled at the protocol layer via security standards in the XML Web Service protocol stack.
This includes encrypting method calls from clients semantic browsers to servers Agencies , support for digital signatures, authenticating the calling user before granting access to an Agency's Semantic Network and XML Web Service methods, etc. The preferred embodiment that the present invention supports local client-side credential management.
This is preferably implemented by requiring users to enter a list of their usernames and passwords that they use on multiple Agencies within an Intranet or over the Internet. The semantic browser aggregates information from multiple Agencies that may have different authentication credentials for the user.
Supported authentication credentials optionally include common schemes such as basic authentication using a username and password, basic authentication over SSL, Microsoft's. NET Passport authentication service, the new Liberty Alliance authentication service, client certificates over SSL, digest authentication, and integrated Windows authentication for use in Windows environments.
In the preferred embodiment, with the users' credentials cached at the client, the semantic browser uses the appropriate credentials for a given Agency by checking the supported authentication level and scheme for the Agency which is part of the Agency's schema. For example, if an Agency supports integrated Windows authentication, the semantic browser invokes the XML Web Service method with the logon handle or other identifier for the current user.
If the Agency supports only basic authentication over SSL, the semantic browser passes either the username and password or a cached copy of the logon handle if the client was previously logged on and the logon handle has not expired in order to logon. The preferred embodiment employs techniques such as logon handle caching, aging and expiration on the KIS in order to speed up the authentication process and logon handle lookups and in order to provide more security by guarding against hijacked logon handles.
The Agency XML Web Service preferably supports different authentication schemes either implicitly if the feature is natively supported by the server operating system or application server or at the application-level by the XML Web Service implementation itself. NET passport authentication. The present invention provides for query caches, which are responsible for caching queries for quick access. On the client, the client-side query cache caches the results of SQML queries with specified arguments.
The cache is preferably configured to purge its contents after a predetermined amount of time e. The amount of time is preferably set by modeling system usage and arriving at an optimal value for the cache time limit. Other parameters may also be considered, such as the data arrival rate on the Agency in the case of per-Agency caches, which is another implementation option , the usage model e.
Caching improves performance because the client does not have to needlessly access recently used servers as the user navigates the semantic environment. In addition, on the client, there is preferably an object cache. This cache caches the results of each SQML resource and is tagged with the resource reference e. The resource may be the local file system, a local application e.
Like the query cache, the object cache may be configured to purge its contents after a set amount of time e. In an alternative embodiment, on the server, the server-side query cache caches the category results for XML arguments. This speeds up the query response time because the server does not have to ask the KDM to categorize XML arguments via the one or more instances of the KBS that the KIS is configured to get its domain knowledge from on each query request.
This speeds up the query response time because the server would not have to convert SQML arguments to SQL each time it receives a request from a client. In the preferred embodiment, aggressive client-side caching is employed and server-side caching is avoided unless it clearly improves performance.
This is because client-side caching scales better than server-side caching since the client caches requests based on its local context. Virtual, Distributed Queries. The present invention employs virtual, distributed queries.
The system does not require static networks that link—or massive individual databases that house—all the metadata for the system. This precludes the need for manual authoring and maintenance on a local or global scope. In addition, this precludes the need for integrated or universal storage, wherein all the metadata is required to be stored on a single metadata store and accessible through one database query interface e.
System Components and Operation 1. Agencies and Agents The present invention introduces a unique approach to using Agencies and Agents to retrieve, manage and deliver knowledge. Agencies In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the Agency is an instance of the Knowledge Integration Server KIS 50 and is the invention's equivalent of a Web site.
An Agency will preferably include an Agency administrator. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, an Agency has the following primary components: A flag indicating whether the Agency supports or requires authentication or both. If the Agency requires authentication, the Agency will require basic user information and a password and will store information on the type of authentication it supports. For Agencies that store user information, the Agency will also require user subscription information for subscription to Agents on a specific Agency.
Structured stores of semantic objects documents, email messages, etc. Runtime components that respond to semantic queries—Components return XML to the calling application and provide system services for all the information retrieval features of the semantic browser. Server-Side User State. Server-side User State facilitates many of the implementation details of the present invention, including the storage of user favorites by semantic links between people objects and information objects , the inference of favorites in order to generate new links e.
The Information Agent semantic browser preferably supports roaming of local client-side User State. This includes users' Semantic Environment and users' credentials securely transferred. In the preferred embodiment, users are able to easily export their client-side User State to another machine in order to replicate their Semantic Environment onto another machine. This is preferably achieved by transferring users' Agent list recent and favorites , the metadata for the Agents including the SQML buffers , users' local security credentials, etc.
Caching the User State on a server and synchronizing the User State using common synchronization techniques can also facilitate roaming. The semantic browser preferably downloads and uploads all client-side User State onto the server, rather than storing the state locally in an XML file or a proprietary store like the Windows registry.
Agents An Agent is the main entry point into the Semantic Network of the present invention. An Agent preferably consists of a semantic filter query that returns XML information for a particular semantic object type e. In other words, an Agent is preferably configured with a specific object type described below. Agents can also be configured with a Context Template described below. In this case, the query will return an object type, but it will incorporate the semantics of the Context Template.
Agents are also used to filter notifications, alerts and announcements. Agents can be given any name. However, examples of Agent names include: All. All Documents. All Events. All There will also be Domain Agents see below that may follow a different naming convention see below. Agent Types. A Standard Agent is a standalone Agent that encapsulates structured, non-semantic queries, i. For example, on the server, the Agent All.
All is a simple Agent that is resolved by filtering all objects based on the CreationTime property. Standard Agents can also be more complex. For example, the Agent All. All may resolve into a complicated query that involves joins and sub-queries from the Objects table and the Users table see below. Compound Agents can also contain other Compound Agents. In the presently preferred embodiment, Compound Agents contain Agents from the same Agency. However, the present invention anticipates the integration of Agents from different Agencies.
By way of example, a Compound Agent All. All might be created by compounding the following Agents: Documents. All Email. All People. All As described above, a Domain Agent is an Agent that belongs to a semantic domain. A Domain Agent is initialized with an Agent query, just like any other Agent. While the preferred embodiment of the present invention utilizes a KBS 80 having proprietary ontologies corresponding to a private Semantic Environment, the present invention contemplates integrated support of ontology interchange standards that will enable an Agency to connect to one or more custom private KBS, for example within an organization where the Agency was previously initialized with a proprietary ontology for that organization.
An example of a Domain Agent is Email. All category for the default domain on the knowledge base installed on the ABC. In the latter case, the Agency is preferably configured to automatically create Domain Agents as new categories are added to the semantic domain on the KBS. This feature allows domains and categories to remain dynamic and therefore easily adaptable to the user's needs over time. When Domain Agents are managed in this fashion, the Agency is configurable so as to remove Agents that are no longer in the semantic domain.
A Domain Agent is initialized with a structured query that filters the data the Agent manages based on a category name or URL. In this situation, the structured query is identical to the queries for Standard Agents. An example of the latter is: Marketing. All [ ABC].
In this example, the Domain Agent name is: Email. All[ ABC]. Blenders are users' personal super-Agents. Users are able to create a Blender and add and remove Agents across Agencies to and from the Blender. Blenders are preferably invoked only on the system client since they include Agents from multiple Agencies. The client of the present invention aggregates all objects from a Blender's Agents and presents them appropriately. Blenders preferably include all manipulation characteristics of other types of Agents, e.
A Blender can contain any type of Agent e. The present invention provides for a Blender Wizard, which is a user interface designed to facilitate users in creating Blenders. For example, from an Information Agent interface wizard that allows users to create and manage a new Blender.
At a third page, the Add Blender wizard, in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention, users add and remove Agents from the Semantic Environment to or from the Blender. Breaking News Agents. In addition to the option of having time-criticality being defined by the Agency administrator, the user has the option of indicating which Agents refer to information that he or she wants to be alerted about.
Any information being displayed will show alerts if there is breaking news that relates to it on a Breaking News Agent. For example, a user in Seattle perhaps would want to be notified on events in Seattle in the next 24 hours, events on the West Coast in the next week during which time he or she can find a cheap flight , events in the United States in the next 14 days the advance notice for most U.
It will do this for all objects displayed in the semantic browser window. If a Breaking News Agent indicates that there is breaking news, the Information Agent object Skin so indicates by flashing the window or by showing a user interface that clearly indicates that there is an alert that relates to the object.
This sample user interface illustrates the popup menu in the context Results Pane. Default Agents. In an alternative embodiment, each Agency exposes a list of default Agents. Default Agents are similar to the default page on a Web site; authors of the Agency determine which Agents they want users to always sees. Combined Default Agents may also be configured by users.
Default Special or Context Agents. In the preferred embodiment, the client or the Agency support a Default Special or Context Agent that maps to each Context Template discussed below. These Agents preferably use the appropriate Context Template without any filter. Default Special Agents preferably function as a starting point for most users to familiarize themselves with the Information Nervous System of the present invention.
Horizontal Decision Agents. In the preferred embodiment, Agents utilized by the client to assist with user interaction, including: Schedule Agent: The Schedule Agent intelligently ranks events based on the probability that particular users would want to attend the event. Meeting Follow-up Agent: The Meeting Follow-up Agent intelligently notifies users when the time has come to have a follow-up meeting to one that occurred in the past.
The Inference Engine see below monitors relevant semantic activity to determine whether enough change has occurred to warrant a follow-up meeting. Users preferably use the previous meeting object as an Information Object Pivot to find the relevant knowledge changes such as new documents, new people that might want to attend, etc. Task Follow-up Agent. The Task Follow-up Agent sends recommendations to users in response to tasks users perform such as reading a document, adding an event to their calendar, etc.
The Agent ensures that users have constant follow-up. The recommendations are based on users' profile, and the Agent preferably uses collaborative filtering to determine recommendations. Customer Follow-up Agent. The Customer Follow-up Agent sends notifications to users based on customer activity. The Agent intelligently determines when the user needs attention based on email received from the user, new documents that might aid user service, etc. Public versus Local Agents.
In the preferred embodiment, users are able to save a copy of an invoked Agent or a query result as a local Agent. For example, users may drag and drop a document on their hard drive to an Agent folder to generate a semantic relational query. Users would then be able to use that Agent to create new personal Agents, and so on.
Other users are preferably able to discover the Agent and to subscribe to it. This is analogous to users saving a new document. Once the Agent is saved, it is added to the users' My Agents list. An Agent responds to a semantic query based on the semantic domain of the Agency on which it is hosted. Alternatively, the system client may be configured to use non-semantic queries. In this case, the Agency will use extracted keywords for the query.
All Agents support non-semantic queries. Preferably only Agents on Agencies that belong to a semantic domain will support semantic queries. In other words, semantic searches degrade to searches. A Smart Agent is preferably created on an Agency if that Agency belongs to a semantic domain. All; Documents. All; and Email. For example, Email. All only returns email objects that the Agency can semantically understand based on its semantic domain or ontology.
The present invention preferably includes the capability for users to display all objects and only those the Agency understands Search Agents. A Search Agent is an Agent that is initialized with a search string. In the preferred embodiment, on invocation, the client issues the search request.
The client issues the search request based on the scope of the Search Agent. If users indicate that they want the search to cover the entire Semantic Environment, the client issues the request to all Agents in the Semantic Environment Manager see below and all Agents on the local area network, the Global Agency Directory and user-customized Agency Directories.
Server-Side Favorite Agents. In the analogous context of Today's Web, a Web site allows users to customize their favorite links, stocks, etc. When initially queried, an Agency displays both its Default Agents and the Favorite Agents of the calling user if there is a User State. Smart Agents. Essentially, this corresponds to users creating the SQML query from the user interface.
In the preferred embodiment, the user interface only allows users to add links from the same Agency resource. However, users can create Agents of the same categories across Agencies, in addition to Special Agents and Blenders which are also preferably cross-Agency. The user interface allows the user to add links using existing Smart Agents as Information Object Pivots provided that the Smart Agent refers to the same Agency for the current query.
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